Climate Change Projection Datasets (GCM, Resolution, Emission Scenarios) #future 

 

Future Climate datasets 

Future climate datasets are those which include forecasts about future climate scenarios based on current climate data. There are three types of future global warming scenarios, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES)Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Within these, there are a number of different forecasts which relate to future emission scenarios. Note that these alone do not forecast future climate variables such as temperature or rainfall. For more information about these, check out ourteaching video. 

In addition to the RCPs and SRESs, future climate datasets may include future climate models which incorporate the RCPs or the SRESs and current climate data. These models are known as general circulation models (GCM) and are used to forecast climate variables such as temperature and rainfall.  Across the world, there are 27 different research groups, that have constructed one or more general circulation models (GCM) 

 

Example: -  

Location, climate projection, emission scenario based on GCMresolutionyear 

as, 

Australia, Climate Projection, SRESB2 based on GISS-MODELER2.5 arcmin (~5km) - 2035 

More information about these can be found by following the link in the ‘Info’ button on the Dataset Collection. 

 

 

Emission Scenarios 

SRES 

Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) 

  

RCPs 

Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 

  

SSPs 

Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) 

  

 

Abbreviation 

Details 

Goddard Institute for Space Studies - ModelE, NASA 

Institut Pierre Simon Laplace - Coupled Model 4 

 

Parallel Climate Model 

 

 

 

Earth System Model 

 

 

Some Recommended Datasets by EcoCommons Australia have been showcased below: 

Australia, Climate Projection, SRESA2 based on NCAR-CCSM30, 2.5 arcmin (~5km) - 2035 

South-East Australia Future Climate, (2030), (SRES-A2-RR1) based on CCCMA3.1, 36 arcsec (~1km)  

South-East Australia Future Climate, (2070), (SRES-A2-RR2) based on CCCMA3.1, 36 arcsec (~1km) 

Australia, Climate Projection, RCP2.6 based on NCAR-PCM1, 2.5 arcmin (~5km) - 2045 

Australia, Climate Projection, RCP6.0 based on UKMO-HADGEM1, 2.5 arcmin (~5km) - 2075 

Australia, Climate Projection, RCP8.5 based on UKMO-HADGEM1, 2.5 arcmin (~5km) - 2025 

 

 

There are currently Six future climates datasets available in the BCCVL’s Climate Change projection (Secondary Experiment). 

 

Name, Geographic extent and Database 

Sample Name and example 

Variables/ Layers 

Year Range 

Domain 

Australia Future climate data 

 
Australia 

Location1, Climate Projection, emission scenario2 based on GCM3resolution4-year5 

  

Example: 

Australia1, Climate Projection, SRESB22 based on GISS-MODELER32.5 arcmin (~5km)4 - 20355 

  

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

 
SRESB2 

SRESA1FI 

 

RCP4.5 

RCP2.6 

2.5 arcmin (~5km) 

 
30 arcmin (~1km) 

 
 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 
2015 

2025 

2035 

2045 

2055 

2065 

2075 

2085 

 
 
 

  

  

Terrestrial 

WorldClim 2.1 

 

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

 

Monthly Precipitation 

 

Monthly Tmin 

 

Monthly Tmax 

 

 

 

 

ssp126 

ssp245 

ssp370 

ssp585 

 

 

 

 

 

10 arcmin 

5 arcmin 

2.5 arcmin 

30 arcsec 

ACCESS-CM2 

ACCESS-ESM1-5 

CanESM5 

CanESM5-CanOE 

CNRM-CM6-1 

CNRM-CM6-1-HR 

CNRM-ESM2-1 

EC-Earth3-Veg 

EC-Earth3-Veg-LR 

FIO-ESM-2-0 

GFDL-ESM4 

GISS-E2-1-G 

GISS-E2-1-H 

HadGEM3-GC31-LL 

INM-CM4-8 

INM-CM5-0 

IPSL-CM6A-LR 

MIROC-ES2L 

MIROC6 

MPI-ESM1-2-HR 

MPI-ESM1-2-LR 

MRI-ESM2-0 

UKESM1-0-LL 

 

 

 

 

 

2021-2040 

2041-2060 

2061-2080 

2081-2100 

 

Climate Future Tasmania 

 

Tasmania 

 
 
 

Location1, Future climate(year)2emission scenario3 based on GCM4resolution5 

  

Example: 
Tasmania 1, Future Climate (2060)2(SRES-B1)3 based on ECHAM546 arcmin (~12km)5 

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

SRES-A2 

SRES-B1 

 
 
6 arcmin (~12km) 

2020 

2025 

2030 

2035 

2040 

2045 

2050 

2055 

2060 

2065 

2070 

2075 

2080 

2085 

 
Terrestrial 

 

South-East Australia 

Location1, Future climate(year)2emission scenario3 based on GCM4resolution5 

 
South-East Australia Future Climate, (2030), (SRES-A2-RR2) based on MIROC3.236 arcsec (~1km) 

  

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 20: Annual mean radiation 

Bioclim 21: Highest weekly radiation 

Bioclim 22: Lowest weekly radiation 

Bioclim 23: Radiation seasonality 

Bioclim 24: Radiation of wettest quarter 

Bioclim 25: Radiation of driest quarter 

Bioclim 26: Radiation of warmest quarter 

Bioclim 27: Radiation of coldest quarter 

Bioclim 28: Annual mean moisture index 

Bioclim 29: Highest weekly moisture index 

Bioclim 30: Lowest weekly moisture index 

Bioclim 31: Moisture index seasonality 

Bioclim 32: Mean moisture index of wettest quarter 

Bioclim 33: Mean moisture index of driest quarter 

Bioclim 34: Mean moisture index of warmest quarter 

Bioclim 35: Mean moisture index of coldest quarter 

 
SRES-A2-RR2 

 
 
36 arcsec (~1km) 

 

 
 
2030 

2070 

 
Terrestrial 

 

(Up-next) 

 

Global 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHELSA, Future climate(year)1, based on GCM2emission scenario3 

 
CHELSA v2.1, future climate 2071-21001, GFDL-ESM42 ssp3703 

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

first day of the growing season TREELIM  

First growing degree day above 0°C 

First growing degree day above 10°C 

First growing degree day above 5°C 

Frost Change Frequency 

Number of growing degree days above 0°C 

Number of growing degree days above 10°C 

Number of growing degree days above 5°C 

Growing degree days heat sum above 0°C 

Growing degree days heat sum above 10°C 

Growing degree days heat sum above 5°C 

Growing season length TREELIM 

Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen-Geiger) 

Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen-Geiger without As/Aw differentiation) 

Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen Geiger after Peel et al. 2007) 

Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Thornthwaite 1931) 

Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Troll-Pfaffen) 

last day of the growing season TREELIM 

Last growing degree day above 0°C 

Last growing degree day above 10°C 

Last growing degree day above 5°C 

Mean temperature of the growing season TREELIM 

Net primary productivity 

Snow cover days 

Snow water equivalent 

Accumulated precipitation amount on days above [threshold_temperature] 

 

To be updated:

 

Maximum monthly potential evapotranspiration 

Mean monthly potential evapotranspiration 

Minimum monthly potential evapotranspiration 

Annual range of monthly potential evapotranspiration 

Monthly potential evapotranspiration 

Monthly precipitation amount 

Maximum monthly surface downwelling shortwave flux in air 

Mean monthly surface downwelling shortwave flux in air 

Miniumum monthly surface downwelling shortwave flux in air 

Annual range of monthly surface downwelling shortwave flux in air 

Maximum monthly near-surface wind speed 

Mean monthly near-surface wind speed 

Minimum monthly near-surface wind speed 

Annual range monthly near-surface wind speed 

monthly near-surface wind speed 

Mean daily maximum 2m air temperature 

Mean daily air temperature 

Mean daily minimum air temperature 

Maximum monthly total cloud cover 

Minimum monthly total cloud cover 

Annual range of monthly total cloud cover 

Monthly total cloud cover 

Maximum monthly vapor pressure deficit 

Mean monthly vapor pressure deficit 

Minimum monthly vapor pressure deficit 

Annual range of monthly vapor pressure deficit 

monthly vapor pressure deficit 

[climate moisture index] 

[near-surface relative humidity] 

 
ssp126 

ssp370 

ssp585 

 
 
36 arcsec (~1km) 

 

IPSL-CM6A-LR 

MPI-ESM1-2-HR 

MRI-ESM2-0 

UKESM1-0-LL 

 
2011-2040 

2041-2070 

2071-2100 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Terrestrial 

 

(Global) 

 

CliMond, Future climate(year)emissionscenariobased on GCMresolution 

 
CliMond (global), Climate Projection, SRES-A2 based on CSIRO-MK3.0, 10 arcmin (~20km) - 2100 

  

Bioclim 01: Annual mean temperature 

Bioclim 02: Mean Diurnal Range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) 

Bioclim 03: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) 

Bioclim 04: Temperature Seasonality (standard deviation *100) 

Bioclim 05: Max Temperature of Warmest Month 

Bioclim 06: Min Temperature of Coldest Month 

Bioclim 07: Temperature Annual Range (BIO5-BIO6) 

Bioclim 08: Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 09: Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 10: Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 11: Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 12: Annual Precipitation 

Bioclim 13: Precipitation of Wettest Month 

Bioclim 14: Precipitation of Driest Month 

Bioclim 15: Precipitation Seasonality (Coefficient of Variation) 

Bioclim 16: Precipitation of Wettest Quarter 

Bioclim 17: Precipitation of Driest Quarter 

Bioclim 18: Precipitation of Warmest Quarter 

Bioclim 19: Precipitation of Coldest Quarter 

Bioclim 20: Annual mean radiation 

Bioclim 21: Highest weekly radiation 

Bioclim 22: Lowest weekly radiation 

Bioclim 23: Radiation seasonality 

Bioclim 24: Radiation of wettest quarter 

Bioclim 25: Radiation of driest quarter 

Bioclim 26: Radiation of warmest quarter 

Bioclim 27: Radiation of coldest quarter 

Bioclim 28: Annual mean moisture index 

Bioclim 29: Highest weekly moisture index 

Bioclim 30: Lowest weekly moisture index 

Bioclim 31: Moisture index seasonality 

Bioclim 32: Mean moisture index of wettest quarter 

Bioclim 33: Mean moisture index of driest quarter 

Bioclim 34: Mean moisture index of warmest quarter 

Bioclim 35: Mean moisture index of coldest quarter 

SRES-A1B 

SRES-A2 
 
 

 
 
2.5 arcmin (~5km) 

 

30 arcsec (~1km) 

 

10 arcmin (~20km) 

 
 

 2100 

 

 
 
Terrestrial 

Bio-ORACLE 
 
Global 

BioOracle Future climate(year)1emission scenario2,Typeresolution3 

 
BioOracle v2.2 Future, 2090-2100, RCP45, Benthic Max Depth 5 arcmin (~10km) 

  

Surface 

Long term average of maximum currents velocity 

Long term average of minimum currents velocity 

Maximum Currents Velocity 

Mean Currents Velocity 

Minimum Currents Velocity 

Range of Currents Velocity 

Long term average of maximum Ice Thickness 

Long term average of minimum Ice Thickness 

Maximum Ice Thickness 

Mean Ice Thickness 

Minimum Ice Thickness 

Range of Ice Thickness 

Maximum Water Salinity of Saltiest Month 

Minimum Water Salinity of Freshest Month 

Maximum Water Salinity 

Mean Water Salinity 

Minimum Water Salinity 

Range of Water Salinity 

Maximum Water Temperature of Warmest Month 

Minimum Water Temperature of Coldest Month 

Maximum Water Temperature 

Mean Water Temperature 

Minimum Water Temperature 

Range of Water Temperature 

 

Benthic (Min, Max & Mean) Depth 

Mean Nitrate Concentration 

Minimum Nitrate Concentration 

Range of Nitrate Concentration 

Long term average of maximum chlorophyll A concentration 

Long term average of minimum chlorophyll A concentration 

Maximum Chlorophyll A Concentration 

Mean Chlorophyll A Concentration 

Minimum Chlorophyll A Concentration 

Range of Chlorophyll A Concentration 

Long term average of maximum currents velocity 

Long term average of minimum currents velocity 

Maximum Currents Velocity 

Mean Currents Velocity 

Minimum Currents Velocity 

Range of Currents Velocity 

Long term average of maximum oxygen concentration 

Long term average of minimum oxygen concentration 

Maximum Oxygen Concentration 

Mean Oxygen Concentration 

Minimum Oxygen Concentration 

Range of Oxygen Concentration 

Long term average of maximum iron concentration 

Long term average of minimum iron concentration 

Max Iron Concentration 

Mean Iron Concentration 

Minimum Iron Concentration 

Range of Iron Concentration 

Average of the maximum light at the bottom 

Average of the minimum light at the bottom 

Maximum amount of light at the bottom 

Mean amount of light at the bottom 

Minimum amount of light at the bottom 

Range of light at the bottom 

Long term average of maximum nitrate concentration 

Long term average of minimum nitrate concentration 

Maximum Nitrate Concentration 

Long term average of maximum phosphate concentration 

Long term average of minimum phosphate concentration 

Maximum Phosphate Concentration 

Mean Phosphate Concentration 

Minimum Phosphate Concentration 

Range of Phosphate Concentration 

Long term average of maximum phytoplankton concentration 

Long term average of minimum phytoplankton concentration 

Maximum Phytoplankton Concentration 

Mean Phytoplankton Concentration 

Minimum Phytoplankton Concentration 

Range of Phytoplankton Concentration 

Long term average of maximum primary productivity 

Long term average of minimum primary productivity 

Maximum Primary Productivity 

Mean Primary Productivity 

Minimum Primary Productivity 

Range of Primary Productivity 

Maximum Water Salinity of Saltiest Month 

Minimum Water Salinity of Freshest Month 

Maximum Water Salinity 

Mean Water Salinity 

Minimum Water Salinity 

Range of Water Salinity 

Long term average of maximum silicate concentration 

Long term average of minimum silicate concentration 

Maximum Silicate Concentration 

Mean Silicate Concentration 

Minimum Silicate Concentration 

Range of Silicate Concentration 

Maximum Water Temperature of Warmest Month 

Minimum Water Temperature of Coldest Month 

Maximum Water Temperature 

Mean Water Temperature 

Minimum Water Temperature 

Range of Water Temperature 

 

 
RCP60 

RCP85 

RCP26 

RCP45 

 
 
5 arcmin (~10km) 

 
NA 

 
 

 2040-2050 

2090-2100 

 
Marine