A Surface Range Envelope is an envelope-style method similar to Bioclim. It is a presence-only model that uses the environmental conditions of locations of occurrence data to profile the environments where a species can be found. The envelope is defined by the minimum and maximum values of the environmental variables for all occurrences. Any location with environmental conditions that falls within this envelope is included in the potential range for a species. To avoid the over-predictive effect of outliers, the envelope can be reduced at specified percentiles or standard deviations.
Simple and intuitive
Presence only model, no absence data needed
Provides ranking of environmental predictor variables
Useful in teaching species distribution modelling
Susceptible to over-prediction
Does not account for interactions between predictors
Cannot use categorical variables
Does not make quantitative predictions or provide confidence levels
The model assumes a normal distribution of the predictor variables.
Requires absence data
EcoCommons allows the user to set model arguments as specified below.
Seed used for generating random values. Using the same seed value, i.e. 123, ensures that running the same model, with the same data and settings generates the same result, despite stochastic processes such as machine learning or cross-validation.
Number of repetitions (nb_run_eval)
Integer value, corresponding to the number of repetitions to be done for calibration/validation splitting (default = 10)
Data split percentage (data_split)
Numeric value between 0 and 100, corresponding to the percentage of data used to calibrate the models (calibration/validation splitting) (default = 100)
Allows to give more or less weight to particular observations; default = NULL: each observation (presence or absence) has the same weight; if value < 0.5: absences are given more weight; if value > 0.5: presences are given more weight.
Variable importance (var_import)
Integer value, corresponding to the number of permutations to be done for each variable to estimate variable importance (default = 0)
Scale models (rescale_all_models)
A logical value defining whether all models predictions should be scaled with a binomial GLM or not (default = FALSE)
Evaluate all models (do_full_models)
A logical value defining whether models calibrated and evaluated over the whole dataset should be computed or not (default = TRUE)
The value defines the most extreme values for each variable not to be taken into account for determining the tolerance boundaries for the considered species. The default value is 0.025, which corresponds to a 95% confidence interval in normal distributions (default = 0.025)
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